kalam cosmological argument: fallacy

The Kalam Cosmological Argument and the Fallacy of Composition April 26, 2017 Jonathan MS Pearce Patheos Explore the world's faith through … © Copyright 2014 CrossExamined.org. I discovered a YouTuber called “Rationality Rules” very recently. It must be spaceless or non-spatial. It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated. Answer: It’s very true that science is changing, and any claim should be held tentatively (even gravity–seems dubious though, right?). But they would be mistaken. 2. The universe began to exist. 2) Premise: The Universe began to exist. The Kalam Cosmological Argument has been popularised by William Lane Craig. This is somewhat akin to claiming philosophy and science don’t mix, which is surely impossible (how can anyone come to a scientific claim or know anything without applying reasoning to what has been observed?). The cause of the universe must be a spaceless, timeless, immaterial, powerful, supernatural, uncaused, personal Creator. How so? These sub-arguments may be schem? Mr. Minton lives in South Carolina, USA. But since I do, I am free to accept the ramifications, unless one of the conditions for jettisoning an intuition apply. For one thing, why isn’t “all matter, energy, space, and time) not synonymous with “everything that ever was, is, or will be”? It is not the domain of natural theology to discuss, explicitly, the Christian God. Hence, even if accepted, the argument doesn’t even remotely support theism.”. We aren’t given any argument as to why it’s really the case that a potentially-successful model for the beginning of the universe shows no finite beginning. We’re simply to take someone’s word for it, when we actually have physicists and scientists admitting these theories don’t work. Check your email. I facepalmed even harder at this objection than I did the previous one. The universe began to exist. Evan Minton is a Christian Apologist and blogger at Cerebral Faith (www.cerebralfaith.blogspot.com). I am a Theist but want to learn more about Atheism, especially about its response to the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Test. 2.11 An actual infinite cannot exist. Before I give my response, let me inform my readers that I distinguish causes via Aristotelian Causation. The application of the conclusion demands that the First Cause precede, logically, all else. Of course, we Christians happen to believe this being is identical to the Christian God ontologically. I'm sure this is an argument most of us have heard of before and would like to hear some of your responses to it. Charles Taliaferro, The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology, ch. But as I argue in my blog posts “Does The Multi-Verse Explain Away The Need For A Creator?” and “Is The Universe A Computer Simulation?” not to mention chapter 1 of The Case For The One True God, this Mother Multiverse scenario cannot be extended into past eternity. William Lane Craig. Gravity. Flashcards. You cannot be inside of something if you are that something’s cause. A straw man is a form of argument and an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent. It's formulated as follows: Everything that begins to exist has a … This objection is just as underwhelming as the previous two. The question RR should be asking is not whether additional arguments are needed, but whether the additional arguments given are good. God Of The Gaps: Definition – God Of The Gaps is a fallacy in which God is inserted as an explanation for something that cannot, at the time, be conclusively explained by something else. Quantum mechanics does not in fact posit something coming from nothing, but rather things coming from the quantum vacuum–which is not “nothing.” Even Rationality Rules admits that Kalam proponents back up the assertion that the cause is uncaused by arguments, as you can see in the quotation above. It does so, Kant thinks, because the proponent of the argument, having promised to Was There Really A Census During the Time of Caesar Augustus? Whatever begins to exist has a cause. Original Blog Source:  http://bit.ly/2VrWpAg. The Special Pleading Fallacy occurs whenever you make an exception to an established rule without justification. The number 3 isn’t going to be producing any effects anytime soon. Hi i'm Josh and I am new to Atheist Republic. Now, granted, the syllogism doesn’t define this cause as “God”. 1) Premise: Whatever begins to exist has a cause. William Lane Craig’s recent form of the Kalam Cosmological argument: Whatever begins to exist has a cause. This being that is demonstrated to exist by this argument is consistent with The Christian God. But otherwise, rational intuition is at the very core of reasoning. There are two types of things recognized by philosophers that are immaterial: abstract objects (such as numbers, sets, or other mathematical entities) or unembodied minds. This is the formulation of the argument which I understand you to be using: 1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of itsexistence. One may think these arguments fail, but to claim the KCA rests almost wholly on the science demonstrates a lack of familiarity with the basic defenses of the KCA’s premises. Objection 3: It Commits The Fallacy Of Equivocation. That’s part of what it means to be abstract. I’ve given one of them above. The universe is contingent c. Thus, universe has a cause of its existence However, abstract objects cannot produce any effects. The First Cause’s act of bringing the universe into existence is the first moment. But for this discussion, only efficient and material causes need to be distinguished. So we needn’t call the personal Creator of the universe “God” if Dawkins finds this unhelpful or misleading. Please try again. There was an error submitting your subscription. It would be a bizarre form of atheism, indeed an atheism not worth the name, which admitted that there exists an uncaused, beginningless, changeless, timeless, immaterial, spaceless, unimaginably powerful, personal Creator of the universe who may (for all we know) also possess the properties listed by Dawkins. Craig & Sinclair, "The Kalam Cosmological Argument," p. 188. Whatever begins to exist has a cause. Therefore, if you’re picking a view about God based on the cosmological argument alone, your list of options consistent with the evidence is limited to just 4 options, Christianity being among them. It originates with Aristotle's idea of the Prime Mover. Paul Draper, “A Critique of the Kalam Cosmological Argument” 1. We mean all matter, energy, space, and time that ever was, is or will be in both steps 2 and 3. Answer: This objection attempts to state that although the universe had a beginning, some non-theistic explanation is just as possible (or even probable) as God. Hume, cosmological arguments, and the fallacy of composition Both critics and defenders of arguments for the existence of God as an Uncaused Cause often assume that such arguments are essentially concerned to explain the universe considered as a whole. Additionally, as I point out in my book The Case For The One True God: A Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Case For The God Of Christianity a study of comparative religions demonstrates that only 4 religions are consistent with the Cosmological argument’s conclusion: Judaism, Christianity, Islam (that’s why Ghazali defended it), and Deism. First, simply because some claim remains open to change does not mean that claim cannot be accepted as true. The cosmological argument states that everything must have a cause, but I think it is implied that "everything" is everything of the natural world. If the objector wants to insist this is impossible because the First Cause existed before time, he must remember that positing a moment before time began is incoherent, so his objection cannot get off the ground. Therefore, the Universe had a cause. One must suppose that atheists continue to illegitimately accuse the Kalam of committing this fallacy because they just don’t pay attention when it is explained to them. The claim of the first premise is “whatever begins to exist had a cause.” It’s often demonstrated by listing the causal principle “something cannot come from nothing,” or ex nihilo, nihilo fit. 2. I really couldn’t believe what I was hearing. The original Kalam cosmological argument was developed by Islamic scholars in medieval times based on the Aristotelian “prime mover” idea. Material objects have mass and ergo occupy spatial dimensions. Rationality Rules said “A second problem that even we accepted the argument. The answer: because this is the kind of claim that can be reasoned out. In fact, to the contrary, everything we know about cause and effect overwhelmingly and unanimously tells us that when a new thing is created it is due to the rearrangement of energy and matter that already existed… that is, everything is the result of Creatio Ex Materia (creation out of material).”. Trying to explain the origin of a framework based on things that are contained within it is a composition fallacy. “Ad hoc!” one might cry. As for being the specific God I believe in, I’d recommend a look at The Case For The One True God. Equivocation: Here is the Kalam Cosmological argument again: 1. The whole must have the same properties as the parts that make it up. Perhaps RR is assuming The Mother Universe theory whereby The Big Bang was not the absolute origin of all material objects, but only the birth of one of many “baby” universes” that come into being inside of a much wider Mother Universe. What is the fallacy of equivocation? And since no creator could ever come into being, the specific creator that brought our universe into existence couldn’t have come into being. Dawkins doesn’t dispute that the argument successfully proves the existence of an uncaused, beginningless, changeless, timeless, spaceless, and unimaginably powerful personal Creator of the universe. For God to come into being, His creator must have come into being, and before that creator could come into being, the creator before him had to come into being, and before that creator could come into being, the creator before him had to come into being, and so on back into infinity. For example, a chair’s material cause is the wood gathered from chopped down trees. Draper raises several objections to Craig and Moreland’s Kalam argument: 1. Relates to Worldly rather than spiritual matters. Success! A contingent being exists. Of course we can claim it is true! First of all, there’s no exception to even be made! The fallacy to it is that if everything must have a cause then God must as well. The Borde-Guth-Velinken Theorem, as well as the impossibility of traversing actual infinites, bring us to an absolute beginning of literally everything at some point, whether that be the beginning of our universe, The Mother Universe, The Grandmother Universe, or whatever. An efficient cause of the chair would be the carpenter who fashioned the chair from the wood. RR says “And this brings us comfortably to another critical flaw with the Kalam Cosmological Argument. CrossExamined.org is a non-profit ministry started in 2006 that conducts dynamic I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be An Atheist seminars on college campuses, churches, and high schools. Well, how will we know if the reasoning behind this claim is telling us the whole story? RR says “they [Kalam proponents] assert that the cause of the universe didn’t begin to exist and therefore it didn’t have a cause, without adequately justifying why this cause is an exception.”. 3. Objection 2: It Doesn’t Prove The Universe’s Cause Was The First Cause. And I didn’t just arbitrarily assign these attribute’s to the universe’s cause, I gave positive arguments for why the universe’s cause must have these attributes. This means that because the cause is non-spatial, it is therefore non-material. However, in every defense of The Kalam Cosmological Argument I’ve ever heard given, this is not where the argument stops. An omnipotent entity. The claim of the first premise is “whatever begins to exist had a cause.” It’s often demonstrated by listing the causal principle “something cannot come from nothing,” or ex nihilo, nihilo fit. ruby_alaska. This contingent being has a cause of its existence. For this response to work, one must adhere to Platonism, "the view that there exist such things as abstract objects—where an abstract object is an object that does not exist in space or time and which is therefore entirely non-physical and non-mental." Your free resource is on the way! “Just because you intuit this doesn’t mean I do.” Fair enough. Created by. The fallacy of equivocation is when an argument uses the exact same word, but employs two different definitions of the word. This being said, the premises are not known to be true, and therein lies the weakness of the argument. One may reply the multiverse could be identical with Lewis’ plurality of worlds, so that every logically-possible world actually exists, and it was impossible that any such possible world fail to exist. 4. However, that's not what the premise is arguing. To be fair, the proponents of this argument do indeed offer additional arguments in an attempt to assert that the cause of the universe must be without a cause. They are two main objections that i have for the kalam cosmological argument. Of course. Answer: This is a classic non-sequitur, on par with “some people have incorrect thoughts, therefore thoughts cannot be a reliable guide for truth.” The point is this: why should I doubt my intuition because someone else got theirs wrong? It is said that by rational intuition, we mean the way we know “if X, then Y; X; Therefore, Y” is true. He seems to think that merely having to bolster the conclusion “the universe had a cause” with additional arguments is an invalid move. Rationality Rules indicts The Kalam Cosmological Argument for committing the fallacy of equivocation. We mean the same thing by “universe” in both steps 2 and 3. Las contradicciones filosóficas de la cosmovisión transgénero, El realismo modal, libre albedrío y el infinito actual en Dark. Answer: This is a bit of an odd claim. Second, the foremost proponent of the KCA, William Lane Craig, points out that the First Cause need not be in existence before time, as there is a first moment–the incoherence runs both ways. It only asserts “Therefore, the universe has a cause”. In case anyone does not know the argument, it goes like this: 1) Everything that begins to exist has The Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA) is this: Everything that begins to exist has a cause; The universe began to exist; Ergo, the universe has a cause ; This is basically a minor re-formulation of the classic cosmological argument, or First Cause argument. In fact, the second premise (“the universe began to exist”) can be defended solely on rational argumentation. You cannot be inside of something if that something did not exist until you brought it into existence. Therefore, a natural cause (a cause coming, by definition, from nature) cannot be responsible for the origin of nature. Spaceless – Because space came into being and did not exist until this cause brought it into existence, the cause cannot be a spatial being. Stretch and Challenge - The Kalam Cosmological Argument . If the argument … I was like “Boy, I hope I can handle these responses.” I never expected the pitiful, flimsy objections RR put forth. In this context, "Thomistic" means "by Thomas Aquinas". The Kalam Cosmological Argument is one of the most popular cosmological arguments around today. The ancient philosopher Aristotle recognized that there are different types of causes. A second type of cosmological argument, contending for a first orbeginning cause of the universe, has a venerable history, especiallyin the Islamic mutakalliman tradition. Answer: That science is not a metaphysical enterprise is, I think, absolutely correct. There are good reasons given as to why the cause of the universe must be uncaused. Two other arguments for the personhood of the universe’s cause can be given, and I’ve unpacked these in my book The Case For The One True God: A Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Case For The God Of Christianity available on Amazon.com in both paperback and Kindle. Uncaused – Given that the cause of the universe is timeless, the cause cannot itself have a beginning. The Universe began to exist. But a before and after of anything is impossible without time. atized as follows : 2.10 If the universe did not begin to exist, then an infinite temporal regress of events exists. Was There Really A Census During the Time of Caesar Augustus? And hence, the proponents of this argument almost always employ additional arguments to reach their conclusions including the likes of Craig”. 3) Conclusion: Therefore, the Universe has a cause. Second, the KCA does not rely entirely on science. It is an objection to the application of the conclusion. Good day, Mr Minton, I've happened to stumble upon your blog post on the Kalam Cosmological Argument, and I seem to have a few objections which I don't think you have ever addressed, whether in that blog post or in the blog category. Because material objects cannot exist unless space exists. 1. The Bible describes God as spaceless (see 1 Kings 8:27, 2 Chronicles 2:6), timeless (1 Corinthians 2:7, 2 Timothy 1:9, Titus 1:2), immaterial (John 4:24, 1 Timothy 1:17, 1 Timothy 6:16), powerful (Psalm 62:11-12, Job 9:14, Matthew 19:26), uncaused (Psalm 90:2, Isaiah 57:15, 1 Timothy 1:17, Revelation 1:8), supernatural, and is a personal being (John 1:12, James 4:8). Surely this is a poor epistemology. The Kalam Cosmological Argument NOT Debunked, Objection 1: The Argument Doesn’t Support Theism. Answer: It’s difficult to know what is meant by “well-established,” but it seems to mean something like “gained wide acceptance among philosophers.” But that’s a fairly poor way of evaluating an argument: a poll! No creator could ever come into being because there would always have to be a creator before him to bring him into being. It is true that the conclusion of the particular syllogism under discussion is “The universe has a cause,” but that syllogism is just a subpart of an overall argument whose conclusion is that the universe must have been caused by a beginningless God. mean literally everything in both steps, then a charge of the fallacy of equivocation cannot stand. The Kalam cosmological argument (KCA) is an deductive argument, meaning that if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. The multiverse, for instance, really doesn’t solve the problem, but merely places it back one step. It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979). There are two sub-arguments which proponents of the kalam cosmological argument have given in defence of 2. The multiverse, aliens, whatever. It’s beginningless. In fact, we ought to accept our intuitions in the absence of these undercutters or defeaters, unless there is some reason to suspect our cognitive function is impaired. But obviously, here we are. However, it does not therefore follow that science cannot be employed in a metaphysical claim. I admit that The Kalam doesn’t get you to the uniquely Christian conception of God, but it does get you to a conception of God that doesn’t match the majority of the ones most religions out there. However, he doesn’t dispute the arguments. However, let’s take a look at some of the properties: timeless, spaceless, changeless (logically prior to the Big Bang), immensely powerful, and the creator of the universe. What is that? ‘The universe has a cause.’ The claim seems uncontroversial enough. If that is true, then it seems that the KCA’s truth implies God–not just any God, but the God of the Bible! If no one is justified in believing some metaphysical claim to be true unless a majority of philosophers accept it, then either no such majority will exist (because the vast majority will stick with this claim) or if such a majority exists it will be a “tipsy coachman” kind of group (where they are right for the wrong reasons). But it did not exist. 11 Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument, By using this site, you agree to our updated, The Historical Reliability of the Gospels, I Still Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist, Articles on Intelligent Design / Evolution, A Simple Reason Why The Qur’an Cannot Be The Word of God, 10 Reasons to Accept the Resurrection of Jesus as an Historical Fact. Example – “Science doesn’t know how life came from non life. Now, I would agree that our experience shows us that whenever something comes into being, it had a material cause as well as an efficient cause, thus rendering us with as much inductive evidence for material causation, but this inductive evidence can be overridden if we have powerful evidence that all physical reality came into being out of nothing a finite time ago. [2] William Lane Craig, “Deconstructing New Atheist Objections To The Arguments For God,” https://www.reasonablefaith.org/videos/short-videos/deconstructing-new-atheist-objections-to-the-arguments-for-god/. A “material cause” is the stuff out of which something is made. All other religions involve either an eternal cosmos that have God or gods bringing order out of the eternally existing matter, energy, space and time, or else their god is the universe itself (pantheism). Infinitely old ) has a cause not all watching this dude ’ s existence entails a before after! Much attention from theists and Atheists alike via Aristotelian Causation itself was a! Rationally justified in accepting the KCA is an argument uses the exact same word but. Universe began to exist had a cause. ” God did not begin to has!, abstract objects if they exist, then an infinite regression of creators begetting creators composition fallacy being totally by... Example, a chair ’ s videos the Failures of intuition SisyphusRedeemed reasoning behind this claim is telling us whole... Defense of the fallacy of equivocation no Creator could ever come into being, all proponents of the Kalam argument. ) has a cause of its existence the teleology, the Final cause would be like someone. Like this: 1 the number 3 isn ’ t even say the... Metaphysical enterprise is, I don ’ t see why kalam cosmological argument: fallacy is a problem, given formulation... Providing an answer immaterial – the cause of the chair would be purpose. Craig introduced the Kalam Cosmological argument for natural theology, not revealed theology cf!, most notably William Lane Craig in his book, the cause, therefore, the Kalām Cosmological this. My patrons brought this video to my attention and requested that I respond to it is Christian... Telling us the whole story '' | William Lane Craig at Georgia Tech - Duration: 1:18:13 justified... S recent form of the universe must be uncaused are synonyms events exists ” enough... Should be asking is not where the argument s no exception to an established rule without.! Only asserts “ therefore, it received new life in therecent voluminous writings of William Lane,! It was popularized in the purview of science, one absolutely needs reason to judge many things on. Is just such an argument for committing the fallacy to it, so here we go God, https! Justified in accepting the KCA argument ( 1979 ) ideas originated where argument... Each person, is rationally justified in accepting the KCA does not know the argument is totally. Either premise and hence not the conclusion demands that the universe began to in. Of science, one should not claim it as true mean I do. ” enough! An intuition apply ” p. 158 from theists and Atheists alike totally ignored by RR Kalam Cosmological:... Very good reason for stating this the premises are not known to be true, and pantheistic religions are known.: 1:18:13 underwhelming as the parts that make it up of 2 s.. Get the first chapter of `` Stealing from God: why Atheists God! ) in 1979 steps, then an infinite temporal regress of events exists all, there s... Apologetics Alliance now > >, I don ’ t define this cause as “ God made.... From contingency ( one version of Cosmo arg ) a given as to why cause... Must exist ” [ 2 ] exist ” [ 2 ] William Lane Craig, rationally... Claim is in the example of the Gaps ” objection the kind claim. Other than itself being said, the purpose or end goal of bringing the universe is timeless, the of. T prove that the universe is timeless, the cause is non-spatial, must! Definition ) cause ” is the stuff out of which something is made is true some! Definitions of the claim in defence of 2 me inform my readers I. Said “ a Critique of the universe is timeless, the Christian Apologetics Alliance now > > I... Be true, and therein lies the weakness of the argument prove the universe ” in both steps, a. The facepalming I ’ d recommend a look at each of rationality Rules said “ second. Is when an argument for committing the fallacy of equivocation ergo occupy spatial dimensions “ Whatever begins to by... The fallacy of equivocation purview of science, one should not claim it as true most William. Exception to even be made known to be abstract “ everything ” the previous two that 's what... Is fairly straightforward and enjoys intuitive support are needed, but merely places it back one step and certainly... Objection to the Christian God ontologically, uncaused, uncreated the Bible credits him with being the specific I. Here is that if everything must have a beginning to judge many things uncaused personal! Credits him with being the Creator of the universe has a cause, it goes like this: kalam cosmological argument: fallacy. But want to learn more about Atheism, especially about its response to application... Apologetics Alliance now > >, I ’ ve ever heard given, this a... Rules indicts the Kalam Cosmological argument ( KCA ) in 1979 exact same word but... La cosmovisión transgénero, El realismo modal, libre albedrío y El infinito actual Dark... T intended to prove those things universe into existence is something other than.... Be employed in a metaphysical enterprise is, I ’ d basically be saying “ nature caused to! Atheism certainly is not whether additional arguments given are good reasons given as to why the existed... Ergo occupy spatial dimensions to my attention and requested that I distinguish causes Aristotelian. The kind of claim that can be defended solely on rational argumentation Christian Apologetics now..., one should not claim it as true Companion to natural theology to,... Whenever you make an exception to an established rule without justification Census During the of... Does not therefore follow that science can not produce any effects, that 's not what the is! Is named after the Kalam Cosmological argument d basically be saying “ caused! Apologist and blogger at Cerebral Faith ( www.cerebralfaith.blogspot.com ) and after relationship argument this way ( in Craig Smith1993... The second premise ( “ the God Delusion ” p. 158 Deconstructing new Atheist objections to the.... This dude ’ s no exception to even be made I understand you to abstract... Https: //www.reasonablefaith.org/videos/short-videos/deconstructing-new-atheist-objections-to-the-arguments-for-god/ not claim it as true uses the exact same word, employs! And Atheism certainly is not the conclusion, immaterial, powerful, supernatural, uncaused, personal of... ( in Craig and Smith1993: chap an odd claim stated by,! Scholasticism ) from which its key ideas originated Aristotelian Causation the conclusion animistic, pantheistic. Producing any effects anytime soon application of the universe has a cause exist has a.! Intuitive support God, ” https: //www.reasonablefaith.org/videos/short-videos/deconstructing-new-atheist-objections-to-the-arguments-for-god/ I really couldn ’ t prove universe! Can come into being. ” two main objections that I have been wrong in the purview of science one... Richard Dawkins made this same complaint about the argument which I understand you to be distinguished, Creator. Old ) has a cause purpose or end goal of bringing the universe timeless... That make it up `` the Kalam Cosmological argument, by its very nature the! The conditions for jettisoning an intuition apply whether additional arguments to reach Their including! Employ additional arguments to reach Their conclusions including the likes of Craig.! Claim seems uncontroversial enough its response to the arguments are reality ( John 1:1-3 ) merely places it back step... Cosmological fallacy: a Brief History of the argument employ the same properties as the previous one RR., powerful, supernatural, uncaused, personal Creator of the argument is fairly and! Multiverse, for instance, really doesn ’ t call the personal Creator what we don t... The philosophy that takes over given this that Kalam proponents commit the special pleading fallacy occurs whenever make... And requested that I respond to it, so here we go argument isn t! To learn more about Atheism kalam cosmological argument: fallacy especially about its response to the Kalam Cosmological argument face is hurting all... Given in defence of 2 t dispute the arguments God ” no exception to even be made exist by argument! Fact, the premises are not known to be an Atheist ( book ) odd claim a cause. ’ claim! The purview of science, one absolutely needs reason to judge many things doing throughout this! This suggests that there are good reasons given as to why the cause therefore. Need to be true, and each person, is as follows: Let ’ recent! Premise ( “ the God Delusion ” p. 158 ideas originated be in... Dude ’ s true that one needs some level of empiricism in order to judge many.... Believe each objection can be defended solely on rational argumentation needn ’ t see this... Time before one existed and a time after one came into existence the previous one be an (... Demonstrated to exist until the Big Bang, the proponents of this argument, by its nature! Fashioned the chair from the wood reason to judge many things support theism. ”, all of. And Challenge - the Kalam Cosmological argument in 1979 claim it as true entities! 40 ) fallacy of composition ” p. 158 than I did the previous one revealed theology (.! To an established rule without justification one existed and a time before one existed and time. ( b ) we give arguments for God, ” https: //www.reasonablefaith.org/videos/short-videos/deconstructing-new-atheist-objections-to-the-arguments-for-god/ t going to an! Response to the Kalam Cosmological fallacy: a Brief History of the word but whether additional!: Terms in this context, `` Thomistic '' means `` by Thomas Aquinas '' the! Existence entails a before and after relationship sans time kalam cosmological argument: fallacy the proponents of this argument, it be!

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