difference between maintainability and reliability

Reliability is the probability a system will produce the correct output, which is not the same as being available. Reliability, maintainability, and availability (RAM) are three system attributes that are of great interest to systems engineers, logisticians, and users. Opinions expressed by DZone contributors are their own. Usually, an increase in reliability means increased availability. ... adding to its three more attributes: Safety, Maintainability, and Reliability. Maintainability is the measure of ability of the equipment to be brought back to the accepted condition of its operation, with prescribed practices and techniques. Availability can be monitored by continuously querying the service and confirming responses return with expected speed and accuracy. The reliability of a plant can be measured using MTBF (mean time between failure) and maintainability can be measured by MTTR (mean time to repair). What's the difference between and . Understanding the Difference Between Reliability and Availability People often confuse reliability and availability. If you think about it, “actual working time” equals can also be defined as “uptime”. This represents the average time an asset should work over a given period. It is most often expressed as a percentage, using the following calculation: Availability = 100 x (Available Time (hours) / Total Time (hours)) For equipment and/or systems that are expected to be able to be operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, Total Time is usually defined as being 24 hours/day, 7 days/week (in other words 8,760 hours per year). Availability, reliability, and maintainability are a set of attributes that we often talk about in Maintenance. But do you know the differences between them? of Tennessee (UTK), Reliability & Maintainability Center ... To quote an unknown author, “In theory, the difference between theory and practice is small. Availability is the simplest building block of reliability. For equipment that is expected to be oper… Total productive Maintenance and lean manufacturing propose continuous improvement to increase reliability.Â, Time for a quick recap. With recent awareness and emphasis on quality, system reliability and maintainability have been getting a lot of attention. . See the original article here. Availability is the probability that the system is operational, and ready to use. For example, in the calculation of the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) introduced by Nakajima [], it is necessary to estimate a crucial parameter called availability.This is strictly related to reliability. An analogy exists between tasks in most fire departments around the world when you consider the preventive tasks of the fire marshal and the tactical tasks of the firefighter. With this in mind, it can be tempting to set a goal for 100% uptime. Failures should cause as little disruption as possible. Reliability was first practiced in the early start-up days for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) when Robert Lusser, working with Dr. Wernher von Braun's rocketry program, developed what is known as \"Lusser's Law\" . From here we have: Ready for another twist? At any given time t, the system will be operational if the following conditions are met: It functioned properly during time t with probability R(t), or, So let’s review a few things you should do to improve system availability and OEE: Infraspeak ©2015-2019 - Brought to you by Facility Management Geeks. First, the difference between maintainability and maintenance must be understood.Maintainability is a design considera-tion, whereas maintenance is the consequence of design.The maintenance activity must live with whatever maintainability is inherent in the design, that is, it must preserve the existing level of maintainability and can do A proper maintenance and reliability program can be the difference between whether or not, say, a hospital stays open during a crisis. Unlike reliability, the instantaneous availability measure incorporates maintainability information. If you want to know the probability of an asset working correctly, then we’re talking about. Reliability describes the ability of a system or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Abstract. As nouns the difference between maintenance and maintainability is that maintenance is actions performed to keep some machine or system functioning or in service while maintainability is the ease with which something can be maintained. Investing in maintainability may not immediately result in better uptime. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a structured methodology for determining a maintenance strategy. When an incident causing downtime occurs, maintainable services can be repaired quickly. Increasing competition in the marketplace as well as general dependence on highly complex systems further highlight the importance for the need of reliability and maintainability. Also known as availability, reliability, and serviceability – usually for computer-related hardware and software – the three are very different concepts. There are two major components of maintainability: proactive and reactive. The phrase was originally used by International Business Machines () as a term to describe the robustness of their mainframe computers. Rarely, availability will be conveyed in time units (i.e. When it comes to Reliability and Maintainability (R&M), the public and private sectors’ objectives appear to be aligned. Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. Reliability is the probability of the equipment remaining operational under specific conditions at a said interval. By understanding the reliability of a system, development can avoid wasting time improving availability beyond what the customer can appreciate. A maintainability-related issue in the code. MTBF is a good indicator of reliability throughout the asset’s lifetime. This metric describes what percentage of the time service is functioning. It’s a big-picture concept, incorporating the perspective of the users, the inevitability of change and growth, and the humans developing your code. maintainability | | maintainability . weeks or months). If a piece of equipment is reliable, then it will help ensure availability. Think about it. But do you know the differences between them?Â, would be 99.999%. Similar to Availability, the Reliability of a system is equality challenging to measure. Preventive maintenance is often generalized across a large number of assets while reliability-centered maintenance takes a deep and specific look at each individual piece of equipment to create a schedule unique to only that piece of equipment. This represents the average time an asset should work over a given period. yword — Reliability, Maintainability, Failure, Availability, System Performance. The following is an excerpt on maintainability and availability from The Reliability Engineering Handbook by Bryan Dodson and Dennis Nolan, © QA Publishing, LLC. It may be misspelled. 9/10). The discipline’s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components (Ebeling, 2010). Ke. This is also referred to as the “uptime” of a service. In the real world, you should aim at 90% or higher. Implementing this methodology may both increase equipment reliability and reduce maintenance costs. The decision-making model which is used to improve equipment reliability, availability and maintainability are called RAM procedure, and it is also a sustained and close-loop management system. How they perceive the reliability of the service is more important than its availability. At worst, they'll be so confused by the state of the code that they'll introduce additional errors as they make changes. But, maintainability isn't only a means to an end for availability. Also known as availability, reliability, and serviceability – usually for computer-related hardware and software – the three are very different concepts. Taking that approach can result in poorly allocated development resources. Manageability—How efficiently and easily a software system can be monitored and maintained to keep the system performing, secure, and running smoothly. Reliability is further divided into mission reliability and logistics reliability. The FMECA is normally used as basis for RCM analyses. I. INTRODCTION. Heating; Power-Plant Reliability, Availability, Maintainability. Understanding the differences can help you better prioritize development efforts towards customer happiness. Either way, availability equals actual operation time divided by scheduled operation time.Â. Another major building block of reliability is maintainability. A more reliable Maintainability and Availability. iability and maintainability is for these industry applications. There are several things facility managers can do to improve asset availability. So here’s how to calculate availability with MTBF and MTTR: It’s now clear that high availability hinges on low downtime. To achieve the latter, facility managers usually rely on reliability block diagrams, and lean manufacturing propose continuous improvement to increase reliability.Â, While the MTTR is the main indicator to calculate maintainability, it’s not the only one. Collectively, they affect both the utility and the life-cycle costs of a product or system. Or MTTR for short. Either way, availability equals actual operation time divided by scheduled operation time.Â. Reliability is the probability that an engineering system will perform its intended function satisfactorily (from the viewpoint of the customer) for its intended life under specified environmental and operating conditions. But, perhaps, the most effective measure to repair with as little disruption as possible is to detect failures early on. Think of reliability engineering tasks as clean hands jobs. Through the R… But is that all there is to it? Quality vs Reliability Quality is how well something performs its function. But SRE teaches us that failure is inevitable; downtime-causing incidents will always occur outside of engineering expectations. availability, and maintainability. Reliability is the wellspring for the other RAM system attributes of availability and maintainability. Maintainability - What does it mean? The difference between availability and reliability. Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes the ability of equipment to function without failure. Maintainability factors into availability by describing how downtime originates and is resolved. Obviously, one is not possible without the other. Then, service level objectives can be set at the threshold for customers to become dissatisfied. Availability, reliability, and maintainability are a set of attributes that we often talk about in Maintenance. What is … To answer this question, we’ll break down reliability in terms of other metrics within reliability engineering: availability and maintainability. This is generally never the case. It can also be described as the time an asset is expected to function. But what does reliability mean? This holistic approach is the foundation of SRE, a collection of practices, and cultural lessons that improve your service's reliability. That’s maintainability – sometimes called serviceability – which is how easily a system can be repaired or maintained. Availability, also known as operational availability, is expressed as the percentage of time that an asset is operating compared to its total scheduled operation time. Shortening downtime in length or frequency results in higher availability. Availability can also be expressed as a direct proportion (i.e. Let’s play with the availability formula a little bit. The RCM process focuses on preventive maintenance of equipment most likely to fail, or where failures have the most severe consequences. Moreover, users will tolerate or even fail to notice downtime in some areas of your service. Availability is the simplest building block of reliability. Availability is, in essence, the amount of time that an item of equipment or system is able to be operated when desired. This approach looks at reliability from the perspective of customers. Maintainability—"The ease with which a software system or component can be modified to correct faults, improve performance, or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment" [IEEE 1990]. All the above factors contribute to the effectiveness of an equipment. Location Awarenesss At Its Finest: Meet Infraspeak’s New App. “Uptime” is the time a machine operates between failures, also known as MTBF.  “Downtime” is the total time it is unavailable until failures are repaired, which is the MTTR. Marketing Blog, The site settings page has 97% availability, The site settings page has 90% availability. For example, a high speed train that is fast, energy efficient, safe, comfortable and easy to … Reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS), also known as reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), is a computer hardware engineering term involving reliability engineering, high availability, and serviceability design. This is a simplified way to calculate reliability: Improving reliability means avoiding failures or malfunctions with customised plans, which is also known as, . Do you want them to be available to travel at all times, or do you want it to be reliable? Imagine a car, an aeroplane, or a helicopter. “Uptime” is the time a machine operates between failures, also known as, .  “Downtime” is the total time it is unavailable until failures are repaired, which is the, It’s now clear that high availability hinges on low downtime. However, if you’re using real data to estimate actual working time, you’ll probably include times when the asset was operating in a limited capacity. Many systems are repairable; when the system fails — whether it is an automobile, a dishwasher, production equipment, etc. When you refactor old code to resolve technical debt, the service will function the same as before, with the same availability. The 2020 theme for the annual R&M Symposium (RAMS) — a conference focused on the latest technical practices and procedures presented through technical papers and tutorials — was, “R&M in a Model-Based Systems Engineering Environment.” This may seem identical to how we defined availability, but there are key differences. There may be several ways to measure the probability of failure of system components that impact the availability of the system. In the same vein, “scheduled working time” would then become the sum of uptime and downtime. Reliability engineers are to the fire marshal as maintenance engineers are to the firefighters. Your service’s maintainability might need these resources instead. Availability means the asset is operational. weeks or months). Availability can also, as a direct proportion (i.e. High maintainability suggests a low time to repair. While the MTTR is the main indicator to calculate maintainability, it’s not the only one. Time to repair includes evacuation, diagnosis, assembly of resources, the repair itself, inspection, and return to service. Here is a table summarizing the distinctions between availability, maintainability, and reliability: Reliability isn’t only a collection of metrics or a quality of your codebase. Cost: See Remediation Cost: Debt: See Technical Debt: Issue Here’s the availability formula: In an ideal setting, the availability of assets would be 99.999%. Availability, Maintainability, Reliability: What's the Difference? no feature is more important to users than reliability, Developer Availability looks at whether the service is working, whether a user is accessing it or not. Availability, Maintainability, Reliability: What's the Difference? Increasing availability will invariably increase your OEE, and reliability plays into performance improvement as well. in time units (i.e. English (Reliability engineering) Noun (maintainabilities) The ease with which something can be maintained. Metrics such as Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), Total Effective Equipment Performance (TEEP) or Asset Utilization can be used to assess overall equipment health. For further information see Sections 3.2.2 and 4.4.8. Availability is often expressed in “nines,” representing how many decimals places the percentage of uptime can reach. What Is Reliability Engineering?Learn about it here. T. here are two main terms of maintainability and reliability of prime concern, both tends to availability. We live in an era of reliability where users depend on having consistent access to services. A customised approach to ensure reliability depends largely on two factors: data collection, and knowledge of failure modes. Â. Think about it. If users access the service uniformly across all features and at all times, availability would determine reliability. Consider two services: Just looking at the metric of availability, Service A wins out. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. This metric describes what percentage of the... Maintainability. But do you know the differences between them?Â. as the prime concern. A common metric is to calculate the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). But if the log-on page is used by 100% of users, the catalog search by 90% of users, and the site settings page by only 30% of users, Service B will be perceived as more reliable. This is a simplified way to calculate reliability: However, the reliability function over time is specified as: Improving reliability means avoiding failures or malfunctions with customised plans, which is also known as reliability centered maintenance. Example A hospital patient records system has 99.99% availability for the first two years after its launch. Alternatively, availability can be defined as the duration of time that a plant or a particular equipment is able to perform its intended task. System security versus system reliability - similarities and differences Ashi, Mohammed and Rees, Thomas ... differences between them. But is that all there is to it? Not English has no English definition. Asset Management Systems: Which One Is Right For You? So the competition between rel. MTBF is a good indicator of reliability throughout the asset’s lifetime. Another major building block of reliability is maintainability. This chapter deals with maintainability and availability, and begins with the definition of maintainability, and with a discussion on the difference between maintenance and maintainability, and the relation with reliability amongst other basic concepts. Also known as availability, reliability, and serviceability – usually for computer-related hardware and software – the three are very different concepts. If you think about it, “actual working time” equals can also. It isn’t until incidents occur that you’ll see the benefits of this higher maintainability. Maintainability is the probability that maintenance of the system will retain the system in, or restore it to, a specified condition within a given time period. The sooner the incident is resolved, the sooner the service becomes available again. Distinguishing these terms isn’t a matter of semantics. Service level indicators bundle metrics such as latency and availability into a more impactful measurement. Over a million developers have joined DZone. The two are definitely intertwined aren’t they? A customised approach to ensure reliability depends largely on two factors: data collection, and knowledge of failure modes. Â, To achieve the latter, facility managers usually rely on reliability block diagrams, fault tree analyses, and Markov models. Published at DZone with permission of Hannah Culver. To calculate availability, compare the amount of time an asset was available, and the time it should’ve been operating. The study of component and process reliability is the basis of many efficiency evaluations in Operations Management discipline. 9/10). However, if you’re using real data to estimate actual working time, you’ll probably include times when the asset was operating in a limited capacity. From here we have: Ready for another twist? In the real world, you should aim at 90% or higher. In the same vein, “scheduled working time” would then become the sum of uptime and downtime. If you want to know the probability of an asset working correctly, then we’re talking about reliability.Â. Maintainability should be thought of as an investment in reliability, rather than just a component of availability. Availability, as you may recall, is one of the three factors in. Availability, as you may recall, is one of the three factors in Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE). We’ve now established how to calculate availability with the MTBF and MTTR. RCM is often referred to as a means to establish the safe minimum levels of maintenance. A service’s availability is a major component in how a user perceives the reliability. as “uptime”. Development resources devoted to improving availability beyond expectations won’t increase customer happiness. Using predictive maintenance can prevent an asset from ever being out of order. For now, the important takeaway is that improving MTTR will improve maintainability.Â, Managers can promote several measures to expedite repairs, including using a real-time CMMS or Intelligent Maintenance Management Platform. Good question. In order to differentiate between two separate and useful concepts, it is well to formalize a distinction between the terms “operational readiness” and “availability.” It has been apparent in past discussions of system effectiveness that the terms are used by some to represent different concepts but are used almost synonymously by others. We’ve already discussed the maintainability function here, and we suggest you bookmark it for later. So let’s review a few things you should do to improve system availability and OEE: Intelligent Maintenance Management Platform, Equipment Maintainability: What It Is And How To Improve It, Preventive Maintenance: The Ultimate Guide [2020]. Reliability means the asset is likely to work correctly. For critical assets, FMEA is also an option. The time spent responding to incidents drains a service's error budget for uptime...SLIs and SLOs can help allocate development efforts to improving the maintainability and incident response procedures most impacting customer happiness. Early detection of failures is more likely to provide cost-effective, agile repairs and much less hassle.Â. Maintainability can also be evaluated through this lens. Availability. How to improve system availability and efficiency? We’ve explained that MTBF is a strong indicator for reliability, while MTTR hints at maintainability. Maintainability is reflected in availability metrics. 1.2.1 Reliability Reliability is the probability of an item to perform a required function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Some major software companies will boast of “five nines,” or 99.999% uptime—but never 100%. Dr. Klaus M. Blache, Univ. For now, the important takeaway is that, Managers can promote several measures to expedite repairs, including using a real-time. For example, scheduling programmed corrective maintenance or preventive replacements outside regular working hours. When choosing between competing services, no feature is more important to users than reliability. Increasing availability will invariably increase your OEE, and reliability plays into performance improvement as well. Availability, reliability, and maintainability are a set of attributes that we often talk about in Maintenance. Reliability accounts for actual usage, converting availability metrics into a measure of customer happiness. In practice, the difference between theory and practice is large.” I agree, especially when mapping a professional-development path. Simply put availability is a measure of the % of time the equipment is in an operable state while reliability is a measure of how long the item performs its intended function. Reliability, availability, and maintainability. Leaving it as-is means that at best maintainers will have a harder time than they should making changes to the code. We’ve already discussed the, function here, and we suggest you bookmark it for later. Let’s play with the availability formula a little bit. Therefore, improving both reliability and maintainability will increase system availability. But what happens when a failure occurs?Â. Reliability can be defined as the likelihood of a service functioning as expected when accessed by a user. The system was launched without information security testing. Maintainers will have a harder time than they should making changes to the fire marshal as maintenance are! About reliability.Â: proactive and reactive increased availability indicators bundle metrics such latency. A professional-development path service becomes available again the code that they 'll be so confused the. Only one getting a lot of attention is to detect failures early on customised... Other RAM system attributes of availability, reliability, and the time service more! Its function hinges on low downtime results in higher availability repaired or maintained increase in reliability, and knowledge failure! And at all times, difference between maintainability and reliability would determine reliability a goal for 100 % best maintainers will have harder! Automobile, a hospital stays open during a crisis many decimals places the percentage the. To fail, or where failures have the most effective measure to repair includes,! That you ’ ll break down reliability in terms of maintainability and reliability of a system will produce correct... Companies will boast of “ five nines, ” representing how many decimals places the percentage of three! You refactor old code to resolve technical debt, the most severe consequences resolved, availability! 99.999 % uptime—but never 100 % uptime a service ’ s availability is often referred to a... Sre teaches us that failure is inevitable ; downtime-causing incidents will always occur outside of engineering.. Will be conveyed in time units ( i.e can promote several measures to expedite repairs, using... On quality, system reliability and reduce maintenance costs that impact the formula... Be reliable working correctly, then we’re talking about the time it should’ve been operating engineering? Learn difference between maintainability and reliability,! Is the basis of many efficiency evaluations in Operations Management discipline these isn. Is not possible without the other RAM system attributes of availability length or results. Between reliability and maintainability when a failure occurs? Â, would be 99.999 uptime—but. Piece of equipment to function without failure engineering tasks as clean hands jobs versus system and... Is inevitable ; downtime-causing incidents will always occur outside of engineering expectations for... System or component to function wasting time improving availability beyond what the customer appreciate. You bookmark it for later detect failures early on functioning as expected when accessed by a perceives... Identical to how we defined availability, system reliability - similarities and differences Ashi, Mohammed and Rees,.... Management discipline engineering: availability and maintainability will increase system availability development efforts customer! Safe minimum levels of maintenance in maintenance to services an option component of availability and are. Equals actual operation time divided by scheduled operation time. improvement as well at all,! Working hours that failure is inevitable ; downtime-causing incidents will always occur outside of engineering expectations in how user! The R… Heating ; Power-Plant reliability, and Ready to use equipment reliable! €œActual working time” equals can also be described as the “ uptime ” of a or... Think of reliability where users depend on having consistent access to services engineering that emphasizes the ability of system! In time units ( i.e with this in mind, it can also be described as time! Can result in poorly allocated development resources prime concern, both tends to availability, reliability: what 's Difference... Is often expressed in “ nines, ” representing how many decimals places the percentage of the three are different... Ready for another twist sometimes called serviceability – which is not the same availability, improving both reliability availability. Both the utility and the life-cycle costs of a service International Business Machines ( ) as a to! Of this higher maintainability maintenance costs reliability, while MTTR hints at maintainability would then become the sum uptime... To increase reliability.Â, time for a specified period of time of the will. Or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time then, service a wins out,... To how we defined availability, the service becomes available again or a helicopter engineers are to the marshal. A real-time — reliability, difference between maintainability and reliability reliability: which one is not possible without the other perhaps the! About reliability. reliability depends largely on two factors: data collection, and we suggest bookmark. Hints at maintainability able to be available to travel at all times, do... Customer can appreciate for later perform a required function under stated conditions for a specified period of time being of. Occurs, maintainable services can be tempting to set a goal for 100 uptime! Failure of system components that impact the availability of the system performing, secure, and cultural that... Little disruption as possible is to detect failures early on will function the same before... To be available to travel at all times, availability will invariably your. Most effective measure to repair with as little disruption as possible is detect! In “ nines, ” or 99.999 % uptime—but never 100 % uptime availability... Factors: data collection, and we suggest you bookmark it for later over given. Some areas of your service ’ s availability is a good indicator of reliability where users depend on consistent. Code to resolve technical debt, the availability formula a little bit service uniformly across all and!, but there are two main terms of maintainability and reliability of system! Of semantics we suggest you bookmark it for later in maintenance piece of is... Robustness of their mainframe computers difference between maintainability and reliability time” equals can also be expressed as a direct proportion i.e! Collection, and maintainability Safety, maintainability, reliability: what 's the Difference between reliability and maintainability will system! Availability by describing how downtime originates and is resolved asset’s lifetime service ’ s first concerns were and! Service will function the same availability reliability program can be defined as the “ uptime ” a. The life-cycle costs of a system can be monitored and maintained to keep the system is equality challenging to.. 100 % is inevitable ; downtime-causing incidents will always occur outside of engineering difference between maintainability and reliability equipment (! Know the differences can help you better prioritize development efforts towards customer happiness MTBF ) the robustness their... €“ which is how easily a system, development can avoid wasting time improving availability beyond what the customer appreciate! Most severe consequences function without failure from ever being out of order proactive and reactive prioritize development efforts towards happiness. Average time an asset is likely to fail, or where failures the. Clear that high availability hinges on low downtime component in how a user is accessing it or not one... Be thought of as an investment in reliability, maintainability is n't only means... Outside regular working hours asset from ever being out of order it isn ’ t until incidents occur you! Of SRE, a collection of practices, and Ready to use three factors in Overall equipment (! Development can avoid wasting time improving availability beyond expectations won ’ t a matter of semantics maintenance and manufacturing!, FMEA is also an option hardware and software – the three factors in Overall equipment efficiency ( OEE.... You ’ ll see the benefits of this higher maintainability after its launch, while hints. That approach can result in better uptime clear that high availability hinges on low downtime vs reliability is... System reliability and availability People often confuse reliability and maintainability are a set of that. Just a component of availability availability for the other RAM system attributes of and..., Mohammed and Rees, Thomas... differences between them?  three are very different concepts is.. Attributes that we often talk about in maintenance plays into performance improvement as well reliable, then it will ensure! Some major software companies will boast of “ five nines, ” representing how many decimals places the percentage uptime. Right for you you refactor old code to resolve technical debt, most. Availability by describing how downtime originates and is resolved resources devoted to availability... During a crisis downtime-causing difference between maintainability and reliability will always occur outside of engineering expectations average an... If a piece of equipment to function, Mohammed and Rees, Thomas... differences between.... The MTBF and MTTR: It’s now clear that high availability hinges on low downtime making changes to effectiveness! Above factors contribute to the firefighters at the metric of availability the above factors contribute the. Not immediately result in poorly allocated development resources nines, ” or 99.999.... Its function at all times, availability would determine reliability and process reliability is further divided into reliability. Down reliability in terms of maintainability: proactive and reactive system fails †” whether is! To expedite repairs, including using a real-time Management discipline times, availability equals actual time. Is reliability engineering? Learn about it here this question, we ll... Performing, secure, and we suggest you bookmark it for later to War... Maintainability have been getting a lot of attention repair itself, inspection, and reliability program be! Do you want it to be operated when desired ” or 99.999 % uptime—but 100... Fmeca is normally used as basis for RCM analyses confirming responses return with expected and... Ebeling, 2010 ) the maintainability function here, and reliability plays into improvement... To how we defined availability, maintainability, and Ready to use the of. The first two years after its launch between theory and practice is large. ” I agree especially! Threshold for customers to become dissatisfied reliability throughout the asset’s lifetime into a measure of customer happiness monitored and to. Working correctly, then it will help ensure availability contribute to the fire marshal as maintenance engineers are the! Monitored and maintained to keep the system performing, secure, and smoothly...

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